A.A.Akaev (Kyrgyzstan), S.D. Bodrunov (Russia), V.M. Geets (Ukraine), M.S. Gorbachev (Russia), G.K. Galbraith (USA), M.Zeman (Czechia), I. Iliesku (Romania), G. Kolodko (Poland), A. Ye. Lebedev (Russia), A. Michnik (Poland), A.D. Nekipelov (Russia), P.G.Nikitenko (Belarus), K. Prunskene (Lithuania), R.Skidelsky (United Kingdom), Î. Sulejmenov (Kazakhstan), F.Tishendorf (Germany), Ya.Charnogursky (Slovakia), L. Sharinger (Austria), G. Erler (Germany)
- The Institute of Economics, Russian Academy of Sciences
- NP "Editorial board of "The World of Transformations" journal"
The journal is registered by the Ministry for Television and Radio Broadcasting and Mass Media PI N 77-15089 from April 14, 2003.
A.V.Alexeyev (managing editor), V.Bachishin, L.B.Vardomsky, S.P.Glinkina, M.Yu.Golovnin, V.I.Kulikov, N.V.Kulikova, E.K.Mazurova, I.I.Orlik, A.P.Potyemkin, V.A.Samarin, G.D.Toloraya, B.Ye.Frumkin, L.G.Khodov, A.S.Tsipko, T.V.Tsygichko (executive secretary), E.V.Tsymbal, T.V.Chubarova, L.F.Shevtsova, B.A.Shmelyov
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To the Readers of "The World of Transformations"
To the Readers
Moscow Economy Forum – 2018
. When Marx Returns
In today’s Russia they did not pay much attention to the 200th anniversary of Karl Marx,
while in Europe and China it was given very serious significance.. There, both the public
and the power structures, are very concerned about the current situation in the world,
which seems to have once again found himself in a historical impasse.
The Future of Russia: Challenges, Strategies, Mechanisms for Achieving Successes
Russia, possessing great creative traditions, having rich experience of industrial and
agricultural production, having fundamental scientific achievements, has made a
significant contribution to the evolution of humanity. However, in recent decades, the
development of the country can not but cause concern.
The Global World under the Conditions of Radical Changes: Risks and Chances
Under this title the topic was discussed in the second plenary discussion. In the world of
numerous changes and collisions, as it was emphasized by its participants, it is important
to preserve and to consolidate the good mutually beneficial relations of countries and
peoples, to jointly respond to the challenges of our time, to protect the planet from
nuclear war and from local conflicts, to preserve its nature from predatory looting, to
make the benefits of globalization available for all, not just for the “golden billion”.
Gr. W. Kolodko. What is Capitalism and What is Socialism?
A lot was written about capitalism and socialism. There is no need to review literature
on this subject, although it should be noted that, throughout the period, when the
corresponding systems coexisted and opposed each other, i.e. during most of the
twentieth century, these terms were attributed various meanings, especially in the course
of intellectual, scientific, ideological and political debates.
V. Kashin. What Is: Lacking in "The Development Strategies"
Our government has a lot of strategies, all kinds and different. There is even a special law –
on strategic planning. There are – at least on paper – the authorities as well, which are
responsible for the relevant work.
Economic Recovery of Slovenia
Iridescent, optimistic assessments of the experience of the most developed state among
the post-socialist countries as a leader of the region have been replaced by a post-crisis
analysis of the causes of the deepest economic recession and deterioration in the social
security of citizens during the period of the forced policy of austerity.
Tax reform of D. Trump: moving along the Rate of Acceleration
The article analyzes the impact of tax reforms, conducted in the USA in the last four
decades, on the development of its economy. It is concluded that tax reforms have led to
revolutionary transformations in the processes of reproduction of capital.
Russian Insanity of the End and the Edge Is Not Present
The reasons for the new "Cold War", which led to a sharp deterioration in relations between Russia and the USA, are qualitatively different from the causes of the "Cold War"
with the USSR.
What’s the Matter with Europe?
If you had to identify a place and time where the humanitarian dream – the vision of a
society offering decent life to all its members – came closest to realization, that place and
time would surely be Western Europe in the six decades after World War II..
The Ukrainian Crisis and the Policy of Russia
Ukraine remains one of the hot topics of world politics and is still, like a fire-bearer, ready
to undermine the already unstable relations between Russia and the West at any time.
What has become of "the fraternal friendship" of the two Slavic peoples, where to their
"single economic complex" has sunk, and why is the civil war in the Donbass burning?
"Mir Peremen" (“The World of Transformations”) talks with the well-known political
scientist B. Shmelev.
On the Way to Personalized Medicine: Opportunities, Risks and Limitations
The rapid rise in the cost of medical services around the world has significantly
exacerbated the problem of the effectiveness of national health systems. In this
connection, a new approach to the development of the industry has been outlined, which
implies a large-scale transition to personalized medicine.
Problems of a Colony Covered with Ice
The island of Greenland in the Far North of the Atlantic Ocean, an area of 2,175,600 km2
is an autonomous region of the Danish Kingdom, and it is home to 65 thousand people.
They are basically Eskimos. Over the past 30–40 years, the number of Europeans, who
moved to the island to take up permanent residence, has increased..
On the Dynamics of Transit Transportations of the Countries of the EAEU
The article analyzes transit in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union, which
significantly changed its structure during the years of their sovereign existence.
International transit in the Economic Model of Belarus
For the Republic of Belarus, which has an advantageous geographical position in the
center of Europe at the crossroads of international trade routes and a developed transport
infrastructure, transit traffic is an important factor in the development of the economy
and in the enhancement of the country’s role in the world economy.
To the Readers
At the Bookshelf
- A. Veber. The Formation of a Global Peace: What Next?
- Publication of the Institute of Economics on International Issues
- L. Kosikova. Russia in Global and Regional Transformation Processes
. Jubilee of a Lost Chance
The current calendar can be called a jubilee for eternally alluring Russia dreams of freedom
and justice. We are talking about the legendary «Prague Spring», whether half-forgotten
or semi-prohibited for the high-profile mentioning of hybrid wars in our troubled times, of titanic television battles with the «fifth column», of spiritual «braces» and, suddenly,
of more frequent squabbles on the topic of sexual harassments. Then, 50 years ago, the
whole world was closely watching the radical social changes, which were unfolding in the
socialist Czechoslovakia, and which were interrupted at the very height of reforms..
G. Jacobs. The Political Economy of Neo-Liberalism and Illiberal Democracy
As is known, the world develops far nonlinearly. Often society, once having rejected
those or other doctrines, theories, strategies of its functioning, returns to them in one
form or another on a new spiral turn. Something similar happens, in the opinion of the
famous scientist and public figure G. Jacobs, with neo-liberalism – the dominant world
view of the last third of the XXth century.
P. Savchenko, M. Fedorova. Convergence As a Model for the Development of the Socio-Economic System
When post-socialist countries, at the turn of the 1990s, began to change the social
system, they had to choose some kind of development model. Some rejected all the
imperatives of socialism and put on the free market. Others decided to combine
state regulation and market self-regulation, individual freedom and social justice in
the economy and in the society. It appears seems that the convergent model of the
development and modernization of the socio-economic system, has proved promising,
since in its center, it turned out to be a man.
E. Bukhwald. Small Business As a Factor for Economic Recovery of Russia’s Single-Industry
The current stage of the state policy of development and support of small and mediumsized
businesses is characterized by a shift from the ideology of welfare and the
achievement of a general expansion of the sphere of small and medium-sized businesses
in the Russian economy to an attempt to use already sufficiently strengthened small
forms of management in order to solve specific economic and social tasks in the country.
Among these tasks is the restoration of mono-cities.
B. Lapidus, D. Macheret. A Promising Network of High-Speed Highways Is a Tool for the Transition to
In the article, based on the analysis of global social and economic trends, a conclusion
was drawn on the need for cardinal acceleration of the transport of goods and passengers
and the expediency of creating a network of high-speed lines, using vacuum-levitation
technologies, to solve this problem. Taking into account the analysis of historical
experience, it is justified that, in order to avoid inefficient costs, it is necessary to build a
perspective topology of such a transport network. A concrete variant of the perspective
topology of the network of vacuum-levitational highways and high speed railway in
Russia is proposed.
Azerbaijan in International Transport Corridors
Transport is the most important direction and driving force of globalization and regional
economic integration. This maximum is true for Azerbaijan. The current attention of
the authorities of the country to transport communications and to transit of goods,
is determined, first of all, by a decrease in the volume of revenues from oil and gas
projects, and by the aspiration and by the desire to diversify sources of economic growth.
Central-Eastern Europe: from Euphoria to Skepticism
The development of socio-political and economic life in CEE, in the first years of the
XXI century, did not foreshadow disturbing prospects. On the contrary, in 1989–1991
years. the process of transformation began, and then it continued. The European
integration, one by one, absorbed post-socialist countries, which, after having got fed
from the European Union, and, after having received recharge from them, began to
strengthen their economies. True, the crisis of 2008–2010. somewhat violated this
process, but did not seriously affect the stability achieved.
Where does Competition Between China and India Leads to?
BRICS, as one of the most influential international forums, constantly attracts the
attention of researchers studying certain innovations within the framework of the bloc,
as well as the state of relations between its members. F. Manenti analyzes the causes of
the uneasy relations between China and India and the possibility of finding a balance of
their competitive interests.
International Politics in 2018: Ten Predictions
Predictions in our time are not uncommon, and besides, in different areas. Especially
their number increases at the turn of the years. Today we present to our readers the
expectations of the famous Latin American foreign policy researcher of Brazil, India and
China and their impact on the global governance in the coming year.
Russian Labor Market: Features of Eastern and Western Migration
When many decisions are made in the sphere of regulating the movement of labor,
the impact on the economy of decisions and political transformations is often
overestimated. Beyond any doubt,, the state restrictions, the sanctions war with the
West, the European migration crisis, the political reorientation of a number of CIS
countries significantly influence the integration of the Russian labor market. At
the same time, the change in the scale and in the dynamics of migration processes, is
primarily objective in nature.
Billionaires, Fiscal Paradise, the World’s Debt, and the Victims
Among Bloomberg’s many profitable activities is a convenient Bloomberg Billionaires
Index that has just published its findings for 2017. It covers only the 500 richest people,
and it proudly announces that they increased their wealth by 1 trillion dollars in just one
year. Their fortunes went up by 23% to top comfortable 5 trillion dollars (to put this in
perspective, the US budget is now at 3.7 trillion.) That obviously means an equivalent
reduction for the rest of the population, which lost those trillion dollars. What is not
widely known is that the amount of the circulation of money stays the same; no new
money is printed to accommodate the 500 richest billionaires!
Foreign Economic Relations of the CEE Countries: Acquisition and Loss
At present, the CEE countries are experiencing the consequences of geopolitical and
economic instability, provoked by the global financial and economic crisis and by the
further exacerbation of the problems of global and European economies. The policy of
sanctions against Russia, initiated by the West, makes the «New Europeans» its active
participants, compelled and forced to comply with the principles of EU membership.
The Investment Process and the Economic Growth in CEE
The countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) face difficult challenges in ensuring
sustainable economic growth. Their solution, to a large extent, depends on achieving
high rates of increase in investment in fixed assets, on raising the rate of investment in
GDP. This article is devoted to the study of the role of investments in economic growth,
to the assessment of the resource potential of investments, to the importance of foreign
direct investments for the economies of the countries of the region.
The European Experience of Regional Policy
In Europe in recent decades, regionalization is actively developing. The modern
European regionalism differs from traditional by openness, by formation “from
below”, by participation of non-state and sub-national subjects. The advantage in
competitiveness is given to regions and territorial communities, where local sociocultural
communications are taken into account, most of all.
To the Readers
What gave October "to the city and the world" and
what are his lessons?
By the 100th anniversary of the Russian Revolution
A major institutional event
We need to engage in politics!
The past as the key to the future
Lessons of the Russian Revolution are not learned
Russia is now split
Contradictions of the first breakthrough to the realm
Red October 1917: from freedom to liberation
On the sidelines of the global civilization the process
From the Great Revolution to disintegration Great country
Social justice – the beacon of social revolutions
Do not bring the situation to a spontaneous "Ruthless revolt"
Great country – Great Revolution
When the authorities are deaf to the new public requests
The revolution accelerated the modernization of the country
It is necessary to reach compromises step by step
About the Russian Revolution
The history is done every minute
October 1917 post factum
The "Third Party" of the Revolution
The main law – is the saving of the people
History is a non-stationary process
Civilization charge of October
On the verge of profound changes in the world
The sad consequence of the Russian Revolution
A person must be above society and the state
Do not repeat the same mistakes, but do not forget useful
Requires political will, determination and consistency in
implementing systemic reforms
Need modern social reforms
We are still living inside the Soviet period
Systemic nature of causes and consequences revolution
October as a revolution – restoration
A history written by the winners never is not true
A good vaccination against social demagogy
Was it inevitable?
Postulate on the future millenniums
The age of success that did not become a victory
In Russia, the trend towards simplification and archaic
is stronger trend to development
Having started a dispute between the present and
the past, we lost the future
The truth disappeared, dissolved completely
The October Revolution is lessons for the modern of Russia
Synonyms of the Russian Revolution are great and tragic
There are more dangerous analogies
The most important period in history world civilization
Artificial deviation from the intended historical path
The main lesson of October is the collapse of the failure
The urgent problems must be solved on time
Reflections on October and soviet history
V. Solodkov, O. Solodkova.
It is very important to form legal awareness
of a free citizen
The similarity in one: a lot of talk and steal
The Hegelian mole of history digs slowly
A. Stratan, M. Poisik.
Every revolution is conceived by romantics, is made
fanatics, but use its fruits inveterate scoundrels
The main misfortune of October is the fierce split in society
Where there is no sensitivity to inequality and injustice,
there is a danger of destruction
The October Revolution: historical basics and lessons
for the future
Do not create conditions and prerequisites for revolutions
A positive phenomenon in the history of Russia
We must avoid extremes
Russia is stuck in a civilized impasse
Negative evaluation of October indisputable
The threat of repetition of historical cycles
The Great Russian Revolution
A broad coalition of social groups is needed
To the Readers
- R. Grinberg. How to Overcome Geopolitical Loneliness?
At the Root of Change
Moscow Economy Forum – 2017
To the 100th Anniversary of the Russian Revolution
At the Bookshelf
- I. Sinitsina, N. Chudakova. Innovativeness – the Condition of Modern
How to Overcome Geopolitical Loneliness?
I just want to clarify, why this time, for Journal heading "To the Readers" from which every
issue of the journal "The World of Transformations" traditionally begins, I chose, it would seem,
a strange topic for such a publication, – about loneliness and its overcoming. Frankly speaking,
because, as a personal pain, I perceive that absurd situation, when our country was practically
alone among the most developed and democratic states of the modern world.
A. Grachev. Nostalgia for Utopia
The restructuring (or originally Perestroika), proposed to the country in 1985 by M. Gorbachev,
to this day attracts the attention of both laymen and experts. It is unlikely that this is a simple
curiosity; it is rather that, with that period of national history, with all the cognitive interest,
problems are associated, both in international and domestic life, those problems, which were
unresolved then and which are tangible today. It is all the more valuable when the relevant
circumstances are clarified by the direct participant in those events. Today the editor-in-chief of
the journal, R. Grinberg, talks to A. Grachev – the press secretary of the first president of the
What Development Strategy Will Work in Modern Russia?
Today, once again, national interests determine the development in the whole world. One of the
priority objectives of the Russian government, set by the President of the RF, V. Putin, is to launch
a program that will help overcome stagnation and, as soon as possible, to enter the growth rates
that exceed the growth rates of the world economy. What will be included in this program of
events? Will the tax burden be reduced to free up investments? The answers to these and other
questions were sought by the participants in the II Plenary Discussion of the Moscow Economic
Forum (March 30, 2017).
The Crisis of Capitalism: the Social-Democratic Response
On March 30, within the framework of the Moscow Economic Forum, a meeting of the "round
table" "The Crisis of Capitalism: the Social-Democratic Response" was held. Moderator of the
discussion, the co-chairman of the Forum, R. Grinberg, invited participants to assess the state and
the degree of demand for a socially-oriented model of economic development in the country and
abroad. What are the prospects for "sociality" and "democracy" in the modern world?
A. Kiva. Without Unambiguous Estimates
The century of such an event as the Russian Revolution of 1917 was to cause serious discussion in
the political elite, the authorities themselves and the media. However, the discussion of this event
in Russia went in an unexpected direction.
A. Tsipko. October "Coup" in the Mirror of Modern "Invalid Patriotism"
Getting rid of the Soviet system, from the domination of Marxist-Leninist ideology, turned into
aggressive anti-Westernism, denial of the values of freedom and individual rights. The features of
this contradictory patriotism are discussed in this article.
The Neighborhood Factor in the Economic Development of New Border Regions of Russia
The peculiarities of the development of border areas are due, on the one hand, to their marginal
position in the state, and on the other – to proximity to neighboring countries. A lot of scientific
research works in Russia and abroad are devoted to the study of these territories. The purpose
of this article is to evaluate the influence of the neighborhood factor with new states on the
economic growth of adjacent regions of Russia, – which are the new border regions (the NBR) in
the years 2005–2015.
The Formation of the Stock Exchange of Securities – the Nature of Frustrations
The modern capitalism as the dominant form of economic activity in the world is not the whole
and the integral system. Depending on the theoretical concept, within the framework of capitalism,
different models of it are highlighted. There are many classifications of models of capitalism, and,
what is more, this heterogeneity is manifested in the use of different terminology, of different criteria
of division, taking into account only economic factors or, in addition, political and social ones.
The Rise of Right-Wing Extremism is a Challenge to Liberal Democracy in Slovakia
The strengthening of populist, Eurosceptic and extremist forces today is a noticeable trend in a
number of European countries. In recent years, xenophobia has become a powerful mobilizing
tool with a subsequent impact on specific forms of practical policies, especially in Central and
Eastern Europe. In parliaments of some European countries, the proportion of deputies,
representing xenophobic and populist parties, is growing.
The Right-Wing Government in Poland is on a Collision Course with the European Union.
Over the weekend, a bill overhauling the country’s judiciary passed both chambers of the
parliament. If it gets adopted, the ruling Law and Justice Party will be able to fill Poland’s
Supreme Court with its hand-picked allies. Critics warn it would be a profound step toward
Poland’s President to Veto Controversial Laws amid Protests
Andrzej Duda says he will block proposed legislation that would have put Supreme Court under
control of ruling party.
Under the Sword of Damocles
The Ministry of Education and Science of the RF has proposed for public discussion the draft Law
on Science, on Scientific, Technical and Innovation activities. Does it contribute to a solution of the
main problems of science, of scientific, technical and innovative activities? Does it assume significant
positive changes in the goal setting and planning of scientific activities, or, on the contrary, does it
open the way to a reduction of the number of scientific institutions and of their funding?
Financialization Has Turned the Global Economy into a House of Cards
Contemporary capitalism revolves around neoliberalism, globalization and financialization, with
the latter being the dominant force in this triad. Yet, there is still confusion about the nature and
dynamics of financialization, including its impact on the economy.
SCO Expansion: The New Opportunities and the New Risks
The key event of the next regular SCO summit (June 9, 2017) in Astana was the adoption of
two new members – India and Pakistan. Such expansion can open up a qualitatively new stage
of its activity, identify additional opportunities and enhance the organization’ authority in
international affairs, and raise the importance in the world. At the same time, substantial interstate
contradictions in these countries cannot but cause concern.
Is Slovakia the Most Successful of the European Union’s Countries?
Slovakia is considered the most successful country in the European Union – GDP is growing,
industry is developing, and unemployment is declining. A number of macroeconomic indicators
of the country are higher than the average European ones. But Slovakia has serious disagreements
with the European Union on issues of geopolitics and of internal policy of the EU and it is not
afraid to defend its position.
To the Readers
Moscow Economic Forum – 2017
At the Bookshelf
- L. Vardomsky. Econometric Measurement of Eurasian Space
Civil War in the Minds of Russians Is not Over
100 years ago, extraordinary events took place in Russia. How to evaluate the revolution
of 1917? The thesis that the Russian impulse to justice had a serious impact on the social
sphere of the then capitalism is virtually not challenged. The establishment of equality,
which the October Revolution declared and largely implemented, quickly gained
European, if not world-wide, popularity. In short, sociality is the main benefit that the
October Revolution gave.
Confused Man between Despair and Hope: World Situation and Russian Specificity
Such topic was chosen by the participants of the first plenary discussion of the 5th
Moscow Economic Forum, which, according to tradition, was held in the Shuvalov Corps
of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov on March 30–31, 2017.
E. Kleer. Central and Eastern Europe: Peripheral and Imitative Capitalism
To answer the question of how capitalism was built in Central and Eastern Europe, a
serious theoretical socio-economic and politico-economic analysis is required. Only
then we can understand the characteristics of these peripheral states.
S. Radzievskaya. On the Financial Viability of the Post-Soviet States
At the end of XX century as a result of the collapse of the camp of the socialist countries
and the USSR that headed them, the world became unipolar – capitalist, led by the
United States, in fact the only hegemon, and a single world financial system with the
main currency being the US dollar.
A. Shurubovich. Russian-Belarusian Relations: a Thorny Integration Path
Russian-Belarusian relations are now experiencing a very difficult period. The integration
process within the framework of the Union State, formed by the two countries, the
treaty on the creation of which was signed back in 1999, clearly "stumbles", its prospects
J. Kotowicz-Javor. Will Poland Have an Innovative Economy?
After 27 years of Polish economic transformation, the creation of the foundations of a
social market economy and a democratic state, after its inclusion in the structure of the
European Union and the opening up for competition at the global level, many positive
changes in it can be noted.
B. Shmelev. What Russia Wants and What Russia Can do in Foreign Policy
Nowadays we hear more and more often, that turbulence is growing in the sphere
international affairs. This means that relations between nations and states are becoming
less stable, which means that they must take care of preventing or countering potential
and often actual, threats from the external environment, which means that resources
must be diverted for this. Why is it restless in the world, what hinders the creative
Shaky of Neutrality
A very tense atmosphere in Europe has been increasingly exacerbated recently by the
North Atlantic alliance – NATO. This military and political bloc continues to draw more
and more countries of Europe into itself, assuring them that, as they say, only within
NATO they will be protected from imminent Russian aggression. Meanwhile, in modern
Europe there are countries that do not succumb to horrors about the Russian threat and
do not want to sacrifice their independence.
Is the Specter of Communism Returning?
Mankind worked its entire history for the sake of the bread of a vital and better future
for future generations. Economists, sociologists and government officials of some very
prosperous countries, came to the conclusion that citizens of these countries can always
be paid the so-called unconditional base income. The idea of unconditional income is
being tried for implementation in two other countries: in Finland and the in Netherlands,
and it is actively discussed in the European press..
Unconditional Income and Prospects of Post-Capitalism?
The theoretical perspective of a new ideological consensus is considered in the article,
which should become a response to the inability of modern capitalism to respond
adequately to the challenges of production automation and precarization..
Problems of Prolonging Working Life
Western society is aging, life expectancy in retirement is increasing, at the same time,
the official retirement age is increasing, and numerous programs to stimulate the
employment of persons of older age groups are being developed. However various
spheres of life, especially the labor and social, are not yet ready for radical demographic
Rating: a Tool of "Soft Power" or an Indicator of Development?
In recent years, the ratings covered almost all spheres of our life, including international
economic relations. Of course, a comparative analysis is good in itself, for clarity, but for
experts and managers, most likely, it is necessary to identify bottlenecks.
Moldova between European and Post-Soviet Integration Projects
In 2013–2015 years, trade and economic relations between Russia and Moldova survived
a large-scale crisis. In connection with the signing of the association agreement with the
European Union by Chisinau, Moscow introduced the most-favored-nation treatment in
relation to the key articles of Moldovan exports.
BRICS and European Union: Is it Possible for the Alliance
The theme of the 1st Forum of BRICS Research Centers, called "Pragmatic
Cooperation", obliges to present several ideas and some specific proposals. They affect
the general capabilities, challenges and responsibilities of this organization in the
transitional era of globalization.
Arbitrary Assessments and Inconclusive Facts
The appearance of A. Tsipko’s article, dedicated the criticism of Bolshevism, is quite
natural in the Post-Soviet era, and its relevance is beyond doubt given the centennial
anniversary of the Great Russian Revolution of 1917. Undoubtedly, there will be many
more studies that can only be welcomed. The main thing is that they should help a
correct, not one-sided, but impartial understanding of the tragic and fateful events of